- 1. Phys. Rev. B 42, 5765 (1990) , “Bistable interstitial-carbonsubstitutional-carbon pair in silicon”, L. W. Song, X. D. Zhan, B. W. Benson, and G. D. WatkinsA bistable interstitial-carbon–substitutional-carbon pair has been identified in electron-irradiated silicon by a combination of several spectroscopic experimental techniques. In the positive and negative charge states, the stable configuration of the defect involves a carbon-silicon... (Read more)
- 2. Lattice Defects in Semiconductors 23, 1-22 (1975) , Institute of Physics, London , “EPR Studies of the Lattice Vacancy and Low-Temperature Damage Processes in Silocon”, G. D. Watkins.EPR studies of silicon irradiated at 20.4 K and 4.2 K by 1.5 MeV and 46 MeV electrons are described. In 46 MeV irradiations the dominant defects formed appear to be divavancies and other multiple defect aggregates which liberate vacancies throughout the anneal to room temperature as they reorder, recombine, etc. For 1.5 MeV irradiations group III atoms play a vital role in p- and n-type materials in trapping interstitials and stabilizing damage. Carbon and oxygen are not effective interstitial traps at these temperatures. Evidence of limited vacancy migration during irradiation is also cited. Two distinct excited configurations of vacancy-oxygen pairs are identified as precursors to A-centre formation in n-type silicon. The kinetics for their conversion to A-centres depends strongly upon the Fermi level as does the isolated vacancy migration energy whhich is measured to be 0.18 Â± 0.02 eV for the Vï¼ charge state. The vacancy has four charge states, Vï¼‹, V0, Vï¼ and Vï¼. Kinetics for hole release from Vï¼‹ reveals an activation barrier of 0.057 eV. The concentration of Vï¼‹ at 20.4 K in boron-doped material indicates the corresponding donor level even closer to the band edge, approximately EV ï¼‹ 0.039 eV. Jahn-Teller energies for V0, Vï¼‹, and Vï¼ are estimated from stress-alignment studies and confirmed to be large. Kinetics studies for reorientation from one Jahn-Teller distortion to another are also described for each charge state.
- 3. Phys. Rev. 135, A1381-A1385 (1964) , “New Oxygen Infrared Bands in Annealed Irradiated Silicon”, J. W. Corbett, G. D. Watkins, and R. S. McDonaldInfrared and electron-spin-resonance measurements on the recovery of silicon irradiated with 1.5-MeV electrons are presented. In the infrared measurements the disappearance of the previously reported 829-cm-1 (12μ) oxygen vibration band is followed, and the appearance and subsequent... (Read more)
- 4. Phys. Rev. 121, 1001 (1961) , “Defects in Irradiated Silicon. I. Electron Spin Resonance of the Si-A Center”, G. D. Watkins, J. W. Corbett.The Si-A center is a major, radiation-damage defect produced in "pulled" silicon by a room temperature irradiation. As a result of studies described in this paper (I), and the following one (II), it is concluded that this center is a lattice vacancy with an oxygen atom impurity bridging two of the... (Read more)
- 5. J. Appl. Phys. 30, 1195 (1959) , “Paramagnetic Resonance in Electron Irradiated Silicon”, G. Bemski.Electron spin resonance has been observed in n-type silicon irradiated with 0.5-Mev electrons. The particular resonance lines discussed here appear only in pulled crystals which contain about 1018 oxygen atoms per cm3. The lines do not appear in floating zone crystals... (Read more)
Updated at 2010-07-20 16:50:39